Developing Mental Toughness with Athletes


“Mental toughness” is a desirable trait in any athlete. When game situations become critical and extremely difficult as the levels of pressure and stress skyrocket, a coach’s concern turn to the ability (or inability) of the athlete to avoid the onset of anxiety and not succumb to these high stress conditions. As part of the discussion in the preparation of the athlete to enhance their “mental toughness” it is important to consider the influences of fatigue upon athletic performance.

Fatigue is not the enemy of the athlete. It is critical for the athlete develop a work capacity to enable them to perform at optimal levels repeatedly over time. To improve an athlete’s work capacity the athlete must be exposed to the appropriate application of unaccustomed stress as described by Hans Seyle in his “General Adaptation Syndrome” (GAS) for the desired adaptation to occur. Fatigued will transpire during the course of the application of these unaccustomed stresses (i.e. training sessions, team practice, etc.). However, with the proper planning of these stresses excessive fatigue will be avoided. Excessive fatigue has an undesirable effect upon the body including but not limited to the following:

1. Concentration and Alertness – Fatigue will adversely affect the athlete’s ability to concentrate as well as react to game situations. Related to these limitations is a decrease in neuromuscular coordination resulting in decreased agility and movement abilities.

2. Muscle force output – A fatigued muscle/muscle group will be constrained to the amount of force that may be produced. This will also have an effect on the physical qualities of power and speed. If a muscle/muscle group cannot produce an adequate amount of force (strength), how can force possibility be produced quickly?

3. Effects on joint force couples – A force couple of a joint may be described as two or more forces acting in different directions, resulting in a rotation. One such force couple occurs at the shoulder between the rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups. The main function of the rotator cuff is to provide a compressive force to maintain the humeral head in a centered position at the glenoid (joint). During arm elevation the strong deltoid muscles attempt to offset the humeral head superiorly toward the inferior aspect of the acromion posing possible injury to the rotator cuff musculature. It has been acknowledged that excessively fatigued rotator cuff musculature cannot oppose the strong forces of the deltoids adversely affecting this force couple resulting in a superior migration of the humeral head in the glenoid. This force couple disruption mimics the same gleno-humeral kinematics that occurs in a shoulder with a torn rotator cuff. The adverse effect of excessive fatigue may arise at any force couple in the body setting the table for poor performance and possible injury.

4. Effect on joint proprioceptors – a proprioceptor may be described as a variety of sensory end organs (i.e. muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organs) in muscle, tendons, and joint capsules that sense body position or state of contraction. The adverse effect of fatigue on joint position sense may result in poor sports skill mechanics (i.e. baseball pitching) and body positioning (i.e. wide receiver foot placement during a cutting activity). A disruption in optimal sport skill mechanics and/or poor positioning of the body at high velocities may place the athlete at possible risk of injury.

5. Recovery – the greater the fatigue state of an athlete the prolonged the period of time required for their full recovery. A consistent day after day “draining of the fuel tank” will not allow for full recovery of the neuromuscular system, prohibit optimal athletic performance, and expose the athlete to possible overuse type soft tissue injuries (strains, tendonitis, etc.).

* Robert A. Panariello

Fastest Way to Build Cycling Endurance


For many years, we were told that if we wanted to properly build our base fitness, we needed to spend 12 to 16 weeks riding long, steady, low-intensity miles to strengthen our aerobic systems, so they could eventually handle harder training rides and races. Well, this method works great if it’s your job to get up and ride your bike four to six hours a day, but for the rest of us without many free hours, a schedule-friendly method called polarized training presents a practical way to build endurance on a time budget.

“Ultimately, your ‘base’ comes down to your mitochondrial capacity,” says exercise physiologist Paul Laursen, “Research shows that while longer, lower-intensity exercise increases the number of mitochondria in your cells, high-intensity training makes those mitochondria more powerful.” (Some studies show high-intensity exercise performed regularly can stimulate the production of mitochondria, too.)

Plus, when you do a set (or especially multiple sets) of high-intensity intervals, your heart rate stays elevated during your “recovery” periods, which benefits your aerobic energy systems—especially as the session progresses, says Laursen.

However you slice it, interval training undoubtedly improves endurance, even if you’re already pretty fit. “Our research has found that when well-trained cyclists performed two interval sessions a week for three to six weeks, their VO2 max, peak aerobic-power output and endurance performance improved by two to four percent,” he says.

To that end, the best recipe for building endurance is blending the distribution of your training so about 80 percent of your rides are in those aerobic ‘zone 2’ intensities (in terms of heart-rate zones) and about 20 percent are performed at high and very-high intensities, or a blend of zones 3 to 5 throughout the week, says Laursen.


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